The global trend of urbanisation has created serious socio-economic problems, especially in developing countries in the past three decades. Third World capitals once regarded by many to provide escape from rural poverty have grown into mega-cities. Large and ever growing populations have outstripped the limited resources, and put severe strain on the economic and social infrastructure. The situation has generated competition for the limited jobs, housing, transport and health care services, leaving large proportions of the inhabitants in a state of destitution. Conditions in the cities such as floods and earthquakes. Governments are largely unable to control the growth of cities, not able to cope with the growing socio-economic problems.

this paper is the result of a two-phase research project carried out in Lima, Peru, between 1997 and 1998, intended to identify, analyse and assess the work of urban NGOs. The research examined issues of resource, internal organisation and administration, and policy which are crucial to NGO effectiveness and weaknesses. In particular, it examines the role of co-ordination, institutional learning, political factors that shape the performance of urban NGOs in Lima. It is hoped that these will highlight important aspects of the activities that enhance operational effectiveness in poverty alleviation.



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